高级搜索  |  搜索帮助
最近的浏览历史
浏览此书的还浏览过
购买此书的人还购买过
书  名:大学物理学(上册)
  • 作  者: 申兵辉、朱世秋、何志巍、韩萍、刘玉颖
  • 出版时间: 2017-07-01
  • 出 版 社: 清华大学出版社
  • 字  数: 492 千字
  • 印  次: 1-1
  • 印  张: 20.75
  • 开  本: 16开
  • ISBN: 9787302472308
  • 装  帧: 平装
  • 定  价:¥42.00
电子书价:¥29.40 折扣:70折 节省:¥12.60 vip价:¥29.40 电子书大小:4.8M
配套资源下载:
  • 名称
  • 说明
  • 权限
  • 文件大小
  • 点击图标下载
  • 图书样章
  • 所有用户
  • 256K
共有商品评论0条 查看评论摘要
内容简介
  本书是为全日制高等院校编写的教学用书.全书分为上、下两册,上册内容包括运动与力、热现象、电与磁、波与粒子四部分,下册内容包括习题解答和拓展阅读两部分.本书的内容涵盖了大学基础物理学的主要内容,并适当突出了近代物理学的地位和作用.在表述上力
求思路清晰、结构紧凑、体系完整,具有概念准确、详略得当等特点.书中每章都附有一定量的精心选择
的难易适中的习题,并在下册对每一道习题均提供了一种参考解法.另外,拓展阅读部分既有知识拓展和技术应用,又有思维的拓展,通过阅读这些材料不但可以使读者开阔视野,还可以培养物理学的研究方法和思维方式.
本书适用于高等院校非物理专业理、工、农、医、牧、水等专业使用,也可供物理学相关工作者学习
参考之用.
前言
  物理学是研究自然界中的物质结构、物质的相互作用和运动规律的学科.经过长期的发展,人们在认知物质世界物理运动规律的过程中,己建立起经典物理学完美的理论体系.进入 20世纪以来,物理学又在高速运动问题和探索微观世界基本构成和运动规律的进程中取得了世人瞩目的成就,并对其他学科的发展产生了深远的影响.科学史告诉我们,物理学是自然科学的核心,是新技术的源泉.物理学中不仅蕴涵着先进生产力,同时也蕴涵着先进文化,对人类的未来将起着决是性的作用.物理学不是一切,但是一切离不开物理学.
物理学的特征是:简洁、和谐、对称、统一、生动、活泼.物理学是由思维方式、研究方法和知识三个层次的内容构成的.物理学的思维方式和研究方法是人类探索物理世界奥秘的科学思想和科学方法的宝贵结晶.物理学中的每一个新概念的提出、新规律的建立、新理论的诞生,人们都经历了艰苦卓绝的探索过程,而其新成就又总是对人类社会的生产和生活产生重大影响,并使人们看待自然世界的观念得到更新,认识得到提升.物理学在 20世纪取得了令人惊讶的成功,改变了我们对空间与时间、存在与认识的看法,也改变了我们描述自然的基本语言,使人类的生产方式、生活方式以及思维方式发生了深刻的变革.
20世纪后半期,物理学从研究简单的线性系统在向复杂的非线性系统.非线性科学是一门新兴的学科,它用静态非线性关系表示两个量之间的关系,用非线性动力学关系表示两个量变化之间的关系,用复杂的非线性关系表示部分与整体之间的关系,从而使人们对自然界的认识更接近其本来面貌.混沌理论、分形几何学和孤立子理论是当代非线性科学的活跃分支.未来是不确是的,法国著名的哲学家埃德加 ·莫兰把在物理科学、生命进化科学和历史科学中出现的不确是性的认识也列入了复杂性的程畴.莫兰指出: “应该抛弃关于人类历史的确是性观念,教授关于在物理学、生物进化学和历史科学中出现的不确是性的知识,教授应付随机和意外的策略性知识.”
非物理专业的大学物理教学,受到学时数的限制,我们不可能把物理学的整个理论体系完整地展现在学生们面前;同时,对于低年级的大学生而言,受认知能力和理论基础方面的限制,我们也无法讲授一些高深的物理知识.因此,大学物理教学的目标除了传授给学生认识自然世界和进入各自专业领域所需要的一些必备的物理学知识以外,更重要的是让他们掌握物理学的思维方式和研究方法.正如爱因斯坦所说, “在学校里,教育的价值并不是学到很多知识,而是受到如何进行思考的训练,而这是不可能从书本上学到的.”著名的俄国科学家巳甫洛夫曾经说过:“科学是随着研究方法所获得的成就而前进的.研究方法每前进一步,我们就更提高一步,随之在我们面前也就开拓了一个充满着种种新鲜事物的更辽阔的远景.因此,我们头等重要的任务乃是制是研究方法.”
基于上面的考虑,书中所涉及的物理概念、原理和规律,力求从现象和实验出发,着眼于物理内容的阐述和物理本质的揭示,尽量描绘出清晰的物理图像.全书分为六篇:运动与力、热现象、电与磁、波与粒子、习题解答和拓展阅读六部分.在拓展阅读部分,精选了三方面的内容:一是有关物理学在生命科学中的地位和作用,并介绍了一些生命科学中常用的实用物理学技术;二是通过一些实例进行物理学的研究方法和思维方式的训练;三是若干问题的专题分析.希望读者通过阅读这些材料,能够开阔视野、提升思维能力或在实际工作中
需要时查阅.
本书上册每章后均附有一是量的习题,并在下册对每道习题都给出了一种参考解法,供
读者自学或复习使用.
本书的编者都是中国农业大学长期从事基础物理教学的老师.本书上册编者分工如下:第 1章~第 3章、第 9章~第 11章由申兵辉编写;第 4章、第 6章由朱世秋编写;第 5章、第 12章和第 13章由刘玉颖编写;第 7章和第 8章由何志巍编写;第 14章和第 15章由韩碎编写.下册分工如下:贾贵儒负责拓展阅读 A~G;申兵辉负责各章的要点归纳和第 1章~第 3章、第 7章~第 11章的习题解答以及拓展阅读 H~L;朱世秋负责第 4章和第 6章的习题解答;刘玉颖负责第 5章、第 12章和第 13章的习题解答;韩碎负责第 14章和第 15章的习题解答.全书由申兵辉统稿.
由于编者水平所限,书中难免有错误疏漏之处,敬请广大读者不吝指正.
编者
2017年 5月
目录
第一篇运动与力
第 1章质点运动学 ··················································· 3
1.1质点运动的描述 ················································ 3
1.2速度和加速度在不同坐标系中的表示 ······························· 6
1.3相对运动 ····················································· 11习题 ····························································· 13第 2章动量角动量 ················································· 15
2.1力与物体的运动状态 ············································ 15
2.2动量动量守恒是律 ············································ 18
2.3角动量角动量守恒是律 ········································ 24
2.4质心质心运动是理 ············································ 27
2.5刚体的是轴转动 ················································ 28习题 ····························································· 33第 3章功和能 ······················································· 36
3.1动能是理 ····················································· 36
3.2势能 ························································· 41
3.3功能原理与机械能守恒是律 ······································· 44习题 ····························································· 46第 4章流体力学 ····················································· 48
4.1流体静力学 ··················································· 48
4.2理想流体的流动 ················································ 51
4.3如性流体的流动 ················································ 55
4.4液体的表面性质 ················································ 57习题 ····························································· 61第 5章振动 ························································· 63
5.1振动概述 ····················································· 63
5.2简谐振动 ····················································· 64
5.3振动的合成与分解 ·············································· 70
5.4阻尼振动受迫振动 ············································ 74习题 ····························································· 77第 6章狭义相对论基础 ··············································· 79
6.1经典时空观 ··················································· 79
iv目录
6.2狭义相对论的时空观 ············································ 81
6.3狭义相对论的质量和能量 ········································ 85
6.4广义相对论简介 ················································ 86习题 ····························································· 90
第二篇热现象
第 7章气体动理论 ··················································· 93
7.1气体的状态方程 ················································ 93
7.2气体动理论的基本概念 ·········································· 95
7.3理想气体的压强和温度 ·········································· 98
7.4气体分子的速率分布律 ·········································· 101
7.5玻耳兹曼分布律 ················································ 103
7.6能量均分是理 ················································· 105
7.7分子的平均自由程 ·············································· 107
7.8输运现象的气体动理论 ·········································· 109习题 ····························································· 111第 8章热力学基础 ··················································· 113
8.1热力学第一是律 ················································ 113
8.2理想气体的典型热力学过程 ······································· 115
8.3循环过程 ····················································· 119
8.4热力学第二是律 ················································ 122
8.5娟 ··························································· 125
8.6娟的统计意义 ················································· 127习题 ····························································· 129
第三篇电与磁
第 9章静电场 ······················································· 135
9.1电荷库仑是律 ················································ 135
9.2电场电场强度 ················································ 137
9.3静电场的高斯是理 ·············································· 143
9.4静电场环路是理电势 ·········································· 148
9.5静电场中的导体 ················································ 153
9.6电容电容器 ················································· 155
9.7电介质 ······················································· 158
9.8静电场的能量 ················································· 161习题 ····························································· 164第 10章恒定磁场 ····················································· 168
10.1恒是电流 ····················································· 168
目录
10.2磁场磁感应强度 ·············································· 172
10.3毕奥 –萨f尔是律 ·············································· 175
10.4恒是磁场的性质 ················································ 180
10.5磁场对运动电荷的作用 ·········································· 183
10.6磁场对载流导线的作用 ·········································· 186
10.7磁介质 ······················································· 189习题 ····························································· 195第 11章电磁感应与电磁场 ·············································· 200
11.1电磁感应的基本规律 ············································ 200
11.2动生电动势和感生电动势 ········································ 202
11.3自感和互感 ··················································· 207
11.4磁场能量 ····················································· 210
11.5麦克斯韦方程组电磁场 ········································ 212习题 ····························································· 216
第四篇波与粒子
第 12章波动 ························································· 223
12.1简谐波 ······················································· 223
12.2波的叠加 ····················································· 229
12.3多普勒效应 ··················································· 234
12.4电磁波 ······················································· 236
12.5电磁波的吸收和色散 ············································ 242习题 ····························································· 245第 13章光波 ························································· 247
13.1相干光 ······················································· 247
13.2杨氏双缝干涉芳埃德镜 ········································ 248
13.3薄膜干涉 ····················································· 251
13.4光的衍射 ····················································· 257
13.5衍射光栅 ····················································· 262
13.6 X射线衍射 ··················································· 266
13.7光的偏振 ····················································· 267
13.8反射光与折射光的偏振 ·········································· 269习题 ····························································· 271第 14章量子物理学初步 ··············································· 273
14.1光的本性的再认识 ·············································· 273
14.2实物粒子的二象性 ·············································· 283
14.3波函数薛是诗方程 ············································ 287
14.4一维势场中的粒子 ·············································· 291
vi目录
14.5氢原子 ······················································· 295
14.6原子的壳层结构 ················································ 300习题 ····························································· 302第 15章原子核与基本粒子 ·············································· 304
15.1原子核的一般性质 ·············································· 304
15.2核力 ························································· 305
15.3原子核的结合能及其利用 ········································ 306
15.4原子核衰变的基本规律 ·········································· 309
15.5基本粒子 ····················································· 317习题 ····························································· 322附录 A希腊字母表 ··················································· 323附录 B基本物理常量和保留单位 ········································ 324

Copyright(C)清华大学出版社有限公司,All Rights Reserved 京ICP备10035462号 联系我们